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There were rumours of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made. Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara , warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment.

Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood. In February , Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church.

Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it.

On 15 December , a state funeral was held. In , Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides.

The cause of his death has been debated. Antommarchi did not sign the official report. In , the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, were published.

His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning.

Furthermore, in a book with Ben Weider , Forshufvud noted that Napoleon's body was found to be well preserved when moved in Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis.

Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.

They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison.

Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind.

There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding. All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately times higher than the current average.

According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their lives.

Napoleon was baptised in Ajaccio on 21 July He was raised as a Catholic but never developed much faith. However, he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and he paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes.

He noted the influence of Catholicism's rituals and splendors. Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding. Napoleon was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death in It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.

The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved. The Concordat did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off.

As a part of the Concordat, Napoleon presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles. While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy , the balance of church—state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour.

He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon and the Pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany.

Napoleon said in April , "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them". French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon.

In January , Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau" [] which was later repudiated by the Pontiff.

Napoleon emancipated Jews , as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos , and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers.

Despite the antisemitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere.

In an assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews and Christians, as well as other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into French society.

Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a " great Sanhedrin " was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the empire Napoleon was building.

He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country.

It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them". One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March , Napoleon placed the Jews on probation.

Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time.

However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France.

It is not known for certain if Napoleon was initiated into Freemasonry. Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe.

During his early schooling years he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and control of the French language. To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex.

George F. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.

Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted.

Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation. Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", arguing that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it.

In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars.

At the Battle of Auerstadt in , King Frederick William III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63, to 27,; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout.

Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived".

He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin.

Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in , commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance: "His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features.

His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old.

During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade.

Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit".

It is more likely that he was 1. Helena a British island , since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime.

He also habitually wore usually on Sundays the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers blue with white facings and red cuffs.

This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of.

Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated".

He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow.

He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in by Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code , road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France , the first central bank in French history.

He negotiated the Concordat of with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime.

It was presented alongside the Organic Articles , which regulated public worship in France. In May , he instituted the Legion of Honour , a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry , to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.

Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law.

Other codes " Les cinq codes " were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.

The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat.

Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won forty battles Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories.

Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.

Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, [ quantify ] into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine ; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.

Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts :.

The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon.

To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.

Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalized property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else.

The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.

In the field of military organization , Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert , and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place.

He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine.

These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. The increased importance of artillery after stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices.

As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry.

McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers.

Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies.

Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive.

The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Near- Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war.

The official introduction of the metric system in September was unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence.

Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France and throughout much of Europe. He made French the only official language.

He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education.

All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability.

In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe" or "a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".

The Continental powers as late as were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation.

Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe.

Chandler , a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler].

The comparison is odious. On the whole Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler's Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day.

Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction. Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead , France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost.

British military historian Correlli Barnett calls him "a social misfit" who exploited France for his personal megalomaniac goals.

He says Napoleon's reputation is exaggerated. Many historians have blamed Napoleon's poor planning, but Russian scholars instead emphasize the Russian response, noting the notorious winter weather was just as hard on the defenders.

The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars.

Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theatre, and art were part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France.

The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader.

Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.

In England, Russia and across Europe—though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature. Hazareesingh explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood.

They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in — People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the Revolution.

Widespread rumours of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes.

There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime.

Datta shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture.

Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals' needs and consumed as popular entertainment.

In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.

International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.

Bonaparte Crossing the Alps , realist version by Paul Delaroche in Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform.

After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec.

Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany. After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire , he reduced the number of German states from to less than 50, prior to German Unification.

A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.

Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. She became known as "Cleopatra". Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life.

When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days. Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.

Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career.

However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to her father: "He loves me very much. I respond to his love sincerely.

There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist". Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.

He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Napoleon I. For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. For other uses, see Napoleon Bonaparte disambiguation.

French statesman, military leader, and Emperor of the French. Emperor of the French. Les Invalides , Paris , France.

Marie Louise of Austria. Main article: Siege of Toulon. Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria.

Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era. See also: Haitian Revolution. Main article: First French Empire. Main article: War of the Third Coalition.

Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance. Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition. Main article: Peninsular War.

Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition. French Empire. French satellite states. Main article: French invasion of Russia.

Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition. Main article: Hundred Days. Further information: Death mask of Napoleon and Retour des cendres.

Further information: Napoleon and the Catholic Church. Further information: Concordat of Further information: Napoleon and the Jews and Napoleon and Protestants.

Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon. Main article: Napoleonic Code. Further information: Napoleonic weaponry and warfare and Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Main articles: History of the metric system , Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in France. Main article: Napoleonic propaganda. Main article: Influence of the French Revolution.

He is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work. At least four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: one in The Cabildo in New Orleans, one in a Liverpool museum, another in Havana and one in the library of the University of North Carolina.

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